What are Programming Languages?

Before learning the programming language, let’s understand what is language?

A language is the principal method of human communication, consisting of words used in a structured and conventional way and conveyed by speech, writing, or gesture.

What is a programming language?

Programming is the process of creating a set of instructions that tell a computer how to perform a task in applications, websites, and mobile applications. Programming can be done using a variety of computer programming languages, such as HTML, CSS, Java, JavaScript, Python, and C++. 

There are  about 700 programming languages, including esoteric coding languages. Some sources that only list notable languages still count up to an impressive 245 languages.

If you’re just learning for fun, pick any language you like! Some popular languages for those starting out include HTML, CSS, JavaScript, or Python. (More on these languages below!)

If you’re at the very beginning of your coding journey, you’ll want to learn basic markup languages like HTML and CSS to get your foot in the door. These two are essential to front-end web development and can be used to structure and design attractive web pages with interactive elements.

Learning HTML and CSS is an excellent starting point for those who want to build websites from the ground up. Once you’re familiar with HTML/CSS, you can move on to languages and libraries like JavaScript, Node.js, or React to give your website the functionality it needs. Keep in mind that you’ll need to showcase a diverse portfolio of your past projects to become a Web Developer.

Want to analyze data? SQL is great for data management, and Python and R are good starting places for data visualization. Ruby, JavaScript, and Python are useful for automating tasks.

If you’re looking to make a career transition or get a new job, talk to people in the industry you’re interested in. If you’re interested in mobile development, web design, data science, IT, A.I., or another industry, reach out to folks in those communities and ask what a typical day looks like for them. What languages do they use? Which do they recommend starting with?

Most commonly used Programming Language

As we all know, the programming language makes our life simpler. Currently, all sectors (like education, hospitals, banks, automobiles, and more ) completely depend upon the programming language.

There are dozens of programming languages used by the industries. Some most widely used programming languages are given below –

1. Python

Programming Language

Python is one of the most widely used user-friendly programming languages. It is an open-source and easy to learn programming language developed in the 1990s. It is mostly used in Machine learning, Artificial intelligence, Big Data, GUI based desktop applications, and Robotics.


  • Python is easy to read, easy to understand, and easy to write.
  • It integrates with other programming languages like C, C++, and Java.
  • Python executes code line-by-line, so it is easy for the programmer to find the error that occurred in the code.
  • Python is platform-independent means you can write code once and run it anywhere.


  • Python is not suitable for developing mobile applications and games.
  • Python works with the interpreter. That’s why it is slower than other programming languages like C and C++.

2. Java

Programming Language

Java is a simple, secure, platform-independent, reliable, architecture-neutral high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995. Now, Java is owned by Oracle. It is mainly used to develop bank, retail, information technology, android, big data, research community, web, and desktop applications.


  • Java is easy to write, compile, learn, and debug as compared to other programming languages.
  • It provides an ability to run the same program on different platforms.
  • It is a highly secured programming language because in java, there is no concept of explicit pointers.
  • It is capable of performing multiple tasks at the same time.


  • Java consumes more memory and slower than other programming languages like C or C++.
  • It does not provide a backup facility.

3. C

Programming Language

C is a popular, simple, and flexible general-purpose computer programming language. Dennis M Ritchie develops it in 1972 at AT&T. It is a combination of both low-level programming language as well as a high-level programming language. It is used to design applications like Text Editors, Compilers, Network devices, and many more.


  • C language is easy to learn.
  • It is fast, efficient, portable, easy to extend, powerful, and flexible programming language.
  • It is used to perform complex calculations and operations such as MATLAB.
  • It provides dynamic memory allocation to allocate memory at the run time.


  • In the C programming language, it is very difficult to find the errors.
  • C does not support the concepts of constructors, destructors, abstraction, polymorphism, encapsulation, and namespace like OOPs.

4. C++

Programming Language

C++ is one of the thousands of programming languages that we use to develop software. C++ programming language is developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1980. It is similar to the C programming language but also includes some additional features such as exception handling, object-oriented programming, type checking, etc.


  • C++ is a simple and portable structured programming language.
  • It supports OOPs features such as Abstraction, Inheritance, Encapsulation.
  • It provides high-level abstraction and useful for a low-level programming language, and more efficient for general-purpose.
  • C++ is more compatible with the C language.


  • C++ programming language is not secured as compared to other programming languages like Java or Python.
  • C++ can not support garbage collection.
  • It is difficult to debug large as well as complex web applications.

5. C#

Programming Language

C# (pronounced as C sharp) is a modern, general-purpose, and object-oriented programming language used with XML based Web services on the .NET platform. It is mainly designed to improve productivity in web applications. It is easier to learn for those users who have sufficient knowledge of common programming languages like C, C++, or Java.


  • C# is a modern, type-safe, easy, fast, and open-source programming language that is easily integrated with Windows.
  • The maintenance of C# (C sharp) is lower than the C++ programming language.
  • C# is a pure object-oriented programming language.
  • C# includes a strong memory backup facility. That’s why it avoids the problem of memory leakage.


  • C# is less flexible because it is completely based on Microsoft .Net framework.
  • In C#, it is difficult to write, understand, debug, and maintain multithreaded applications.

6. JavaScript

Programming Language

JavaScript is a type of scripting language that is used on both client-side as well as a server-side. It is developed in the 1990s for the Netscape Navigator web browser. It allows programmers to implement complex features to make web pages alive. It helps programmers to create dynamic websites, servers, mobile applications, animated graphics, games, and more.


  • JavaScript helps us to add behavior and interactivity on the web page.
  • It can be used to decrease the loading time from the server.
  • It has the ability to create attractive, dynamic websites, and rich interfaces.
  • JavaScript is a simple, versatile, and lightweight programming language.
  • JavaScript and its syntax are easy to understand.


  • JavaScript is completely based on the browser.
  • It does not support multiple inheritance.
  • It is less secure compared to other programming languages.

7. R

Programming Language

Currently, R programming is one of the popular programming languages that is used in data analytics, scientific research, machine learning algorithms, and statistical computing. It is developed in 1993 by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman. It helps marketers and data scientists to easily analyze, present, and visualize data.


  • R programming provides extensive support for Data Wrangling.
  • It provides an easy-to-use interface.
  • It runs on any platform like Windows, Linux, and Mac.
  • It is an open-source and platform-independent programming language.


  • R programming does not support 3D graphics.
  • It is slower than other programming languages.

8. PHP

Programming Language

PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. It is an open-source, powerful server-side scripting language mainly used to create static as well as dynamic websites. It is developed by Rasmus Laird in 1994. Inside the php, we can also write HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code. To save php file, file extension .php is used.


  • PHP is a more secure and easy-to-use programming language.
  • It supports powerful online libraries.
  • It can be run on a variety of operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Mac.
  • It provides excellent compatibility with cloud services.


  • PHP is not capable of handling a large number of applications and not suitable for large applications.
  • It is quite difficult to maintain.

9. Go

Programming Language

Go or Golang is an open-source programming language. It is used to build simple, reliable, and efficient software. It is developed by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson in 2007.


  • Go language is easy-to-learn and use.
  • It comes with the in-built testing tools.
  • Go is a fast programming language.


  • Go language does not support generics.
  • It does not support error handling.
  • It supports a lack of frameworks.

10. Ruby

Programming Language

Ruby is an open-source, general-purpose, and pure object-oriented programming language released in 1993. It is used in front-end and back-end web development. It is mainly designed to write CGI (Common Gateway Interface) scripts.


  • Ruby supports various GUI (Graphical User Interface) tools like GTK and OpenGL.
  • It is used to develop both internet as well as intranet applications.
  • The code written in Ruby is small and contains less number of lines.


  • Ruby is slower than other programming languages.
  • It is very difficult for programmers to debug the code written in Ruby.

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